Task 56
Task 56
SHC Task 56

Building Integrated Solar Envelope Systems

Publications

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The following are publications developed under Task 56:

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Highlights

Task 56 Highlights 2017
Task 56 Highlights 2017
January 2018 - PDF 0.67MB - Posted: 2018-01-16
SHC Task 56 focuses on simulation, laboratory tests and monitoring of multifunctional envelope systems that use and/or control solar energy, influencing thermal energy demand, thermal energy consumption and comfort of the building.
Task 56 Highlights 2016
Task 56 Highlights 2016
April 2017 - PDF 1.8MB - Posted: 2017-04-17
By: Task 56

SHC Task 56 focuses on the analysis, simulation, laboratory testing and onsite monitoring of active envelope solutions that are integrated with building HVAC and comfort systems faced with one of the following:
• Delivering renewable thermal or/and electric energy to the building’s systems providing heating, cooling and ventilation, or
• Reducing a building’s heating and cooling demands while controlling daylight

Newsletters / Solar Update

Task 56 Newsletter no.4 - 2018-11
Task 56 Newsletter no.4 - 2018-11
November 2018 - Posted: 2018-10-31
Editor: Michaela Meir, Roberto Fedrizzi

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Hurdles and opportunities offered by the exploitation of the solar source through multifunctional envelope technologies
Hurdles and opportunities offered by the exploitation of the solar source through multifunctional envelope technologies
SHC SOLAR UPDATE, Dec. 2017
December 2017 - PDF 0.72MB - Posted: 2017-12-15

Abstract  -  Making use of the solar source is key in highly energy efficient buildings both to limit thermal and lighting needs and to cover the residual demands by means of technologies exploiting a high share of renewable energy. However, this requires the careful design of the individual technologies and the planning of their integration into buildings as they may eventually result in complex systems to operate and maintain, and the thermal and visual comfort of the users may not be guaranteed. Moreover, different strategies can be competing against one another (e.g., glare control against minimization of space heating demand) and finding an optimal solution is not straightforward.

Task 56 Newsletter no.3 - 2017-07
Task 56 Newsletter no.3 - 2017-07
April 2017 - PDF 2.21MB - Posted: 2018-10-16
Editor: Michaela Meir, Roberto Fedrizzi

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Task 56 Newsletter no.2 - 2016-11
Task 56 Newsletter no.2 - 2016-11
November 2016 - PDF 0.88MB - Posted: 2018-10-16
By: Michaela Meir, Roberto Fedrizzi

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Task 56 Newsletter no.1 - 2016-08
Task 56 Newsletter no.1 - 2016-08
August 2016 - PDF 0.21MB - Posted: 2018-10-16
Editor: Michaela Meir, Roberto Fedrizzi

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Journal Papers

Current Trends and Future Challenges in the Performance Assessment of Adaptive Façade Systems
Energy and Buildings, 179, 165-182
November 2018 - Posted: 2018-10-15
By: Attia, S., Bilir, S., Safy, T., Struck, C., Loonen, R.C.G.M., & Goia, F.
Document Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.09.017

Abstract - During the last decades, a great number of innovative building envelope materials and façade components have been developed. The majority of these technologies promise significant improvements in energy efficiency and occupant's comfort, with products that are easily available in the market. However, it remains a challenge to assess the performance of such facades, leading to difficulties for efficient design, operation, and maintenance. As a consequence, the market adoption of adaptive facades is not realizing its full potential, resulting in missed opportunities for energy savings and improved occupant satisfaction. In this study, the current trends of adaptive facades are investigated, with particular emphasis on their performance assessment. Based on extensive literature review, the gaps in assessment of adaptive facades are determined and a novel object-based façade characterization and classification framework is proposed. Furthermore, a generic stakeholder map and process map are presented to explain current adaptive façade delivery practices. In addition, the findings of interviews and two focus group discussions with experts and specialists are presented to elucidate their expert opinions, leading to a validated framework of key performance indicators. As results of this paper, the gaps related to adaptive façade systems’ assessment are identified with respect to the different actors and stakeholders, and insights and perspectives on current trends and future challenges of adaptive façade system assessment are provided.
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Angle-dependent optical properties of advanced fenestration systems-Finding right balance between model complexity & prediction error
Building Simulation (2018), Online ISSN 1996-8744
August 2018 - Posted: 2018-10-15
By: Capperucci, R., Loonen, R.C.G.M., Hensen, J.L.M., Rosemann, A.L.P.
Publisher: Tsinghua University Press
Document Number: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-018-0466-4

Abstract: Advanced glazing systems with special spectral characteristics or light redirecting behavior are commonly applied to improve building energy efficiency and indoor comfort conditions. The angle-dependent optical properties of such advanced windows can be markedly different from those of ordinary glass. To achieve accurate building performance predictions, it is necessary to represent the physical behavior of advanced window systems at a sufficiently high level of detail in building simulation programs. However, modelers should be aware that overly complex models are also undesirable, because they are costly to develop and input parameters are difficult to obtain. There is little guidance for simulation users to select an appropriate simulation strategy with respect to atypical glazing properties. This paper introduces a new approach for analyzing the influence of angle-dependent glazing properties, taking into account the effect of location and façade orientation. The potential of this method is demonstrated using an innovative switchable glazing system based on liquid crystals. A comparison between measured and derived transmission properties based on normal angle-of-incidence is presented. Results are presented for three European cities at different latitudes and for three different façade orientations. Using this new approach, simulation users can make informed decisions about appropriate modeling strategies for considering angular optical properties in building performance predictions.
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Investigating the potential of a closed-loop dynamic insulation system for opaque building elements
Energy and Buildings 173, 2018, Pages 409-427, ISSN 0378-7788
August 2018 - Posted: 2018-10-15
By: Koenders, S.J.M., Loonen, R.C.G.M. & Hensen, J.L.M.
Document Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.05.051

Abstract - The extensive use of thermal insulation in low-energy dwellings makes them susceptible to heat trapping in warmer periods. Construction elements with dynamically adjustable thermal transmittance properties, so-called dynamic insulation systems, can be a promising solution for reducing this overheating problem, while simultaneously lowering the energy consumption for heating. In this paper, the performance of a novel type of closed-loop forced convective dynamic insulation system is investigated. A simulation model to predict the performance of the dynamic insulation is developed in EnergyPlus. First results show that a ninefold higher U-value can be achieved in comparison with the insulating state of the system. Multiple case studies have been analysed to study the behaviour and performance of the system. It was found that the dynamic insulation system can reduce the energy consumption and increase the indoor thermal comfort of a typical residential building, while using less auxiliary energy than comparable passive cooling systems, such as night ventilation. Applying dynamic insulation to a façade construction with a heavyweight interior partition and lightweight exterior partition resulted in the best performance. If a small period of thermal discomfort is allowed, the closed-loop dynamic insulation system can obviate the need for an active cooling system in the climates of Helsinki, Amsterdam and Stuttgart.
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Unglazed Solar Thermal Systems for Building Integration, coupled with District Heating Systems. Conceptual Definition, Cost and Performance Assessment
Journal of Facade Design and Engineering 6(2) 119-131, June 2018, ISSN: 2213-3038
June 2018 - Posted: 2018-10-15
By: MUGAGUREN, Mikel Lumbreras; GARAY, Roberto; MARTIN, Koldobika
Document Number: https://doi.org/10.7480/jfde.2018.2.2085

Abstract - In this paper, the energy performance of a solar thermal (ST) façade system is studied in relation to its connection to a district heating system. This concept allows for the direct use of ST heat in the building, while taking profit from the network for delivery/selling of excess heat and purchase of heat during periods of underproduction. The use of unglazed collectors for low-intrusive architectural interaction in façades is discussed. Studies are carried out on the heat production of the system and its capacity to cope with local demands. Economic studies are carried out in order to balance the investment and operational costs/profits of the system.
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On the development of a façade-integrated solar water storage
Journal of Facade Design and Engineering 6(2) 9-20, June 2018, ISSN: 2213-3038
May 2018 - Posted: 2018-10-31
Document Number: https://doi.org/10.7480/jfde.2018.2.2048

Abstract - The integration of active solar thermal technologies into building envelopes has recently been receiving greater attention, and has been promoted within international projects such as IEA Task 56 and Cost Action 1403. Although the façade integration of solar thermal collectors is a topic that has been debated at length, little attention has been paid to the building integration of solar water storage. The scope of this paper is to highlight the main barriers that are experienced in the development of façade-integrated solar water storage. This activity is a part of the SunRise project that aims to develop a new unitised curtain wall element for tertiary office buildings. The façade element integrates a complete solar thermal system consisting of a solar collector, hot water storage, a radiant panel, and all the required operation components. A mock-up of the solar façade is manufactured to identify practical constructional issues. The thermal behaviour of the tank is analysed through FEM simulations and laboratory tests. Download publication

Experimentation under real performing conditions of a highly integrable unglazed solar collector into a building façade
Energy Procedia, Volume 122, 2017, Pages 775-780, ISSN 1876-6102
September 2017 - Posted: 2018-10-15
By: P. Elguezabal, R. Garay, K. Martin
Publisher: www.icae2018.eu
Document Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.07.395

In the current context of moving towards more sustainable construction, advanced façade systems that integrate solar collecting devices represent a commitment with future trends that combine renewable technologies with building skins. This paper describes a real experience when combining a novel unglazed solar collector based on sandwich panel technology, a heat pump and a controller that manages the different operation modes. Installed in the Kubik by Tecnalia testing building in northern Spain, the system has been monitored for several months in 2016, under an energy efficiency scope. The study will present measured values regarding the yield of the collector, performance of the heat pump and general efficiencies.
Keywords: Active envelopes; Prefabricated Sandwich Panels; Unglazed; Integrated Solar Collector; Heating Pump
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Concept, development and thermal characterisation of an unglazed solar thermal collector for facade integration
Dyna, National University of Colombia, Medellín
January 2017 - Posted: 2017-03-09
By: Roberto Garay Martinez, Beñat Arregi Goikolea, Paul Bonnamy, Jérôme Lopez
Publisher: Industrial Engineers, Spain, https://www.revistadyna.com/homepagedii

Despite significant development in the performance and efficiency of solar thermal technology, little consideration has been given to its interaction within building envelopes, aside from mechanical fixing systems. The lack of solutions for the architectural integration of solar collectors and the complexity of their assembly process remain important barriers for the widespread adoption of this technology. An innovative approach is proposed in which solar collectors are not merely integrated into conventional building envelopes, but instead these envelopes are hybridized and activated to house solar thermal systems. This poses the challenge of adapting solar thermal technology to the capacities and limitations of architectural skins. The paper presents results from three ongoing projects. BATISOL and BASSE investigate the development of solar thermal technology so as to fulfil the functional, constructional and formal requirements of building skins. Façade assemblies are turned into active skins by integrating unglazed solar collectors in the place of conventional renders and claddings. RETROKIT explores the usage of renewable energy gains within an alternative environmental control strategy, by direct supply of heated air into the ventilation system. Finally, a discussion is presented on architectural, constructional and thermal performance aspects of these solutions, based on both design assessments and experimental data.
Keywords: Solar collector, Façade integration, Construction, Solar systems, Ventilated façade (in press, article in Spanish)
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Review of current status, requirements and opportunities for building performance simulation of adaptive facade
Review of current status, requirements and opportunities for building performance simulation of adaptive facade
Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 10(2), 205-223;
January 2017 - PDF 0.36MB - Posted: 2018-10-14
By: Roel Loonen, Fabio Favoino, Jan Hensen, Mauro Overend
Document Number: https://doi.org/10.1080/19401493.2016.1152303

Adaptive building envelope systems have the potential of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving the energy flexibility of buildings, while maintaining high levels of indoor environmental quality. The development of such innovative materials and technologies, as well as their real-world implementation, can be enhanced with the use of building performance simulation (BPS). Performance prediction of adaptive facades can, however, be a challenging task and the information on this topic is scarce and fragmented. The main contribution of this review article is to bring together and analyse the existing information in this field. In the first part, the unique requirements for successful modelling and simulation of adaptive facades are discussed. In the second part, the capabilities of five widely used BPS tools are reviewed, in terms of their ability to model energy and occupant comfort performance of adaptive facades. Finally, it discusses various ongoing trends and research needs in this field.

DALEC – a novel web tool for integrated day- and artificial light and energy calculation
Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 10:3, 344-363
December 2016 - Posted: 2018-03-27
By: Matthias Werner, David Geisler-Moroder, Bert Junghans, Oliver Ebert & Wolfgang Feist
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Document Number: https://doi.org/10.1080/19401493.2016.1259352

Abstract  -  DALEC is a novel, combined lighting and thermal simulation web tool. This tool allows building designers to evaluate their individual façade concepts in terms of thermal and visual performance and ultimately their impact on overall building energy use. Although easy to use, the software accounts for the complex thermal and light processes in buildings, by way of sophisticated and time-saving pre-calculations. Based on climatic data a calculation of heating, cooling and electric lighting loads can be obtained within a simulation time shorter than one second. The model has been validated by comparison with experimental data and other state-of-the-art software and shows deviations less than 15%. Not only energy demand is considered, but also user behaviour (e.g. glare protection), as well as visual and thermal comfort. This innovative, holistic approach facilitates and accelerates the design of sustainable and energy-efficient building for new, as well as for refurbished buildings.

Conference contributions

Building retrofit using facade-integrated energy supply systems
Building retrofit using facade-integrated energy supply systems
ISEC - International Sustainable Energy Conference, Congress Graz, Austria, 03.-05. October 2018
October 2018 - PDF 1.08MB - Posted: 2018-10-31
By: Dagmar Jaehnig, Thomas Ramschak, David Venus, Karl Hoefler, Christian Fink

A new approach of highly-efficient thermal refurbishments of multi-family buildings is presented that has a high potential to reduce costs and simplify the renovation processes significantly. This approach is based on prefabricated curtain wall elements that integrate components for the energy supply system such as heat pumps, PV panels and all the necessary pipework for supply and waste water lines. By using pre-fabricated curtain wall elements, scaffolding and the relocation of inhabitants can be avoided. Three different system concepts have been evaluated and compared to a reference retrofit in terms of primary energy and life cycle costs. It has been shown that the new concepts can reduce the primary energy consumption significantly while reducing the costs over the lifetime of the system. Finally, a functional mockup of such as pre-fabricated façade was constructed and successfully tested in the laboratory.

Deep renovation of a MFH with decentral compact heat pumps
Deep renovation of a MFH with decentral compact heat pumps
ISEC - International Sustainable Energy Conference, Congress Graz, Austria, 03.-05. October 2018
October 2018 - PDF 1.3MB - Posted: 2018-10-31
By: Fabian Ochs, Dietmar Siegele, Toni Calabrese, Georgios Dermentzis

Within the framework of the Austrian FFG project “SaLüH!” concepts with high energy efficient and cost-effective decentral small scale heat pumps for heating and domestic hot water preparation for the renovation of small dwellings in multi-story buildings are developed and investigated. Very compact heat pumps are developed in order to enable the integration of these units into the window parapet or into the façade. The wall integration has a high potential in pre-fabrication and leads to an optimal solution for renovation of small apartments. The target is to create a complete renovation package with a decentralized (apartment size) exhaust-air heat pump (HP) for ventilation and heating installed in the kitchen and an air-to-water HP for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation installed in the bathroom. The solutions aim to be cost effective, involving components and technologies with high efficiency and minimum noise emissions. In addition, further aspects such as handling, compactness, attractiveness, maintenance, etc. are of high relevance to enable a minimum disruptive renovation.

Characterization of advanced daylighting systems and combined lighting and thermal simulation
Characterization of advanced daylighting systems and combined lighting and thermal simulation
13th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, Bern, Switzerland, Oct. 1-2, 2018 - website: abs.green
October 2018 - PDF 0.34MB - Posted: 2018-11-06
By: David Geisler-Moroder, Christian Knoflach, Silvia Öttl, Wilfried Pohl
As the interface between interior and exterior spaces, the façade plays a key role for the thermal and visual conditions in buildings. Advanced daylighting systems should fulfill various and in parts contradictory requirements: they must provide sufficient and adequately distributed natural lighting, avoid visual discomfort (glare) while allowing visual contact to the exterior, provide solar gains for heating in winter and protect from high radiation against overheating in summer. Integrating these functionalities often results in products which are more complex than conventional sunshading systems and thus are often not properly characterized and cannot be applied in standard design workflows. We present approaches for the characterization of advanced daylighting systems and introduce DALEC, a simplified tool for combined lighting and thermal simulations that can account for such systems. A comparison between DALEC and TRNSYS proves that the simplified approach is adequate for integrated simulations in early design phases.
Heating with PV Façade in a Passive House
Heating with PV Façade in a Passive House
13th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, Bern, Switzerland, Oct. 1-2, 2018 - website: abs.green
October 2018 - PDF 1.19MB - Posted: 2018-10-22
By: Georgios Dermentzis, Fabian Ochs, Aleksandra Ksiezyk, Elisa Venturi, Mara Magni, Hannes Gstrein

Abstract - A new building with 14 small flats is designed according to Passive House standard in Innsbruck, Austria. Heating and domestic hot water (DHW) supply are planned to be covered using direct electricity. Electric heaters are used for space heating, and electric boilers for DHW (one per flat). The whole south façade is covered with a Photovoltaic (PV) system of 27.3 kWp, aiming to cover as much as possible of the electricity needs. The idea was to keep the investments costs low, minimize the installation effort, eliminate the distribution losses, and increase the share of on-site renewable energy production using the available space in the façade [...]
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Heating with facade-integrated heat pumps – results of the Austrian project „SaLüH!“
Heating with facade-integrated heat pumps – results of the Austrian project „SaLüH!“
13th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, Bern, Switzerland, Oct. 1-2, 2018 - website: abs.green
October 2018 - PDF 1.58MB - Posted: 2018-10-22
By: Fabian Ochs

- Compact façade integrated MVHR and heat pump for decentral ventilation and heating
- Potential of onsite-PV to reduce non-renewable primary energy consumption
- Results of the project "SaLüH"

Solar thermal façade systems – An interdisciplinary approach
Solar thermal façade systems – An interdisciplinary approach
13th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, Bern, Switzerland, Oct. 1-2, 2018 - website: abs.green
October 2018 - PDF 0.74MB - Posted: 2018-10-16
By: Paul-Rouven Denz, Puttakhun Vongsignha, Simon Frederik Haeringer, Tilmann E. Kuhn, Christoph Maurer, Michael Hermann, Hannes Seifarth, Katharina Morawietz

Abstract - To reach future Net-Zero Energy Buildings as requested by the “Energy Performance of Buildings Directive” (EPBD, [1]) the integration of systems for harvesting of renewable energy is decisive. Building integrated solar thermal (BIST) collectors can play an important role in this paradigm shift. In the R&D projects ArKol and TABSOLAR multidisciplinary teams develop different BIST systems for transparent and opaque facades. These solutions help trigger highly qualitative architectural integration of solar thermal collectors and are planned for future realization. This paper describes the basic layout of these systems and the current state of development.
Keywords: Building-integrated solar thermal (BIST), energy harvesting building envelope, energy-efficient transparent/ opaque façade, multifunctional façade, solar thermal venetian blind (STVB), solar thermal ultra-highperformance concrete collector.

Living in Light – a transformation concept of existing buildings
Living in Light – a transformation concept of existing buildings
13th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, Oct. 1-2, 2018, Bern, Switzerland, website: abs.green
October 2018 - PDF 0.7MB - Posted: 2018-10-05
By: Jakob Klint, Vickie Aagesen

Abstract - The intension of Living in Light is to create additional space behind a more transparent and flexible building envelope in a transformation of existing buildings. The purpose is to make a more demand driven concept for renewal and transformation of existing buildings to the benefit of the users, the owners and the environment. The transparent building envelope adds new qualities to the building. A part from more space it creates a “Summer Garden”, with daylight and better indoor environment, active facades (PV and thermal sun power) and better energy performance. The Living in Light Box tests the concept. www.livinginlight.info | Paper | Presentation

Advanced daylighting systems and combined lighting and thermal simulation
Advanced daylighting systems and combined lighting and thermal simulation
13th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, Oct. 1-2, 2018, Bern, Switzerland, website: abs.green
October 2018 - PDF 0.34MB - Posted: 2018-10-05
By: David Geisler-Moroder, Christian Knoflach, Silvia Öttl, Wilfried Pohl

Abstract - As the interface between interior and exterior spaces, the façade plays a key role for the thermal and visual conditions in buildings. Advanced daylighting systems should fulfill various and in parts contradictory requirements: they must provide sufficient and adequately distributed natural lighting, avoid visual discomfort (glare) while allowing visual contact to the exterior, provide solar gains for heating in winter and protect from high radiation against overheating in summer. Integrating these functionalities often results in products which are more complex than conventional sunshading systems and thus are often not properly characterized and cannot be applied in standard design workflows. We present approaches for the characterization of advanced daylighting systems and introduce DALEC, a simplified tool for combined lighting and thermal simulations that can account for such systems. A comparison between DALEC and TRNSYS proves that the simplified approach is adequate for integrated simulations in early design phases.

Lab measurements and field testing of integrated systems
Lab measurements and field testing of integrated systems
13th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, Bern, Switzerland, Oct. 1-2, 2018 - website: abs.green
October 2018 - PDF 2.36MB - Posted: 2018-10-10
By: Jan de Boer, Carolin Hubschneider

- Assessment of photometric properties
- Relation between photometric properties and lighting conditions in indoor spaces
- Energy performance and user acceptance studies

Potential of covering electricity needs of a flat of a MFH with decentral compact heat pumps with PV – Simulation study for different DHW profiles and PV field sizes
EUROSUN 2018, Rapperswil, Switzerland, 10.-13.09.2018
September 2018 - Posted: 2018-09-24
By: Toni Calabrese, Fabian Ochs, Dietmar Siegele and Georgios Dermentzis
Publisher: ISES Conference Proceedings Database, Online Database

Abstract - Heat pumps in combination with PV are discussed as one of the key technologies in a future sustainable energy system. A simulation study of a flat in a multi-familiy-house (MFH) with decentral compact heat pumps and with a photovoltaic (PV) field was performed in the CARNOT/Simulink simulation environment in order to evaluate the potential to reduce the purchased grid electricity. PV electricity is self-consumed covering electric power requests for heating, ventilation, appliances and Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preparation. Three different electric power profiles for DHW preparation and two PV fields (roof, roof and façade) were analysed.The results of the simulations show that just a small percentage (below 26%) of electricity demand can be covered from PV field energy. The installation of a PV field also on the façade of the flat does not reduce significantly the purchased electricity (-11% in best of cases), while the use of daily electric storage could be evaluated to decrease further the purchased electricity (maximum reduction of -27%). The use of annual primary energy factor instead of monthly values overestimates the reduction of primary energy demand in all cases compared to the case without photovoltaic system.

Definition of a reference office building for simulation based evaluation of solar envelope systems
EuroSun 2018 - 12th International Conference on Solar Energy for Buildings and Industry, Rapperswil, Switzerland, Sept. 10-13, 2018
September 2018 - Posted: 2018-10-31
By: D´Antoni, M., Geisler-Moroder, D., Bonato, P., Ochs, F., Magni, M., De Vries, S.B., Loonen, R.C.G.M., Fedrizzi, F.

Abstract - Solar Envelope systems, which represent the technological response for meeting aesthetic requirements and solar renewable energy exploitation on building façades, are gaining a rising attention. However, they are still rare on the market. IEA SHC Task 56 focuses on the critical analysis, simulation, laboratory tests and onsite monitoring of market available and near market Solar Envelope systems. Within this framework, reference boundary conditions are required in order to assess the performance of Solar Envelope systems and compare different technologies through numerical simulations. The present paper reviews the process of defining reference boundary conditions for an office building, listing possible simplifications and required assumptions in order to calculate the impact at whole building level in terms of useful and final energy savings related to the installation of a façade integrated technology. The paper concludes with a comparison of simulation results between TRNSYS and DALEC, a simplified concept evaluation tool, which performs combined thermal and lighting analysis already at early design stages. 
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Simulation-based performance prediction of an energy-harvesting façade system with selective daylight transmission
Simulation-based performance prediction of an energy-harvesting façade system with selective daylight transmission
VIII Int. Congress on Architectural Envelopes, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain, June 20-22, 2018
June 2018 - PDF 0.6MB - Posted: 2018-10-15
By: Saini, H., Loonen, R.C.G.M., Hensen, J.L.M.
Publisher: www.icae2018.eu

Abstract: Shading devices are effective in controlling glare and solar heat gains in buildings. However, this occurs at the expense of daylight and outside view. This paper evaluates the thermal and daylight performance of Lumiduct, a sun-controlling dynamic façade system that permits only diffuse radiation inside the building, while producing electricity. This imparts Lumiduct a unique characteristic of acting as a shading device while providing useful daylight and view to the outside. The first part of the paper briefly illustrates the working principle of Lumiduct and its functional characteristics and then, introduces the basic principles of the modelling and simulation strategy used to predict its performance. To demonstrate this strategy we use TypeDLT, a TRNSYS type that performs integrated thermal and daylight simulations by coupling TRNSYS’ multi-zone building model with Radiance’s three-phase method. This strategy relies on the use of customized and time-controlled bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDF) to characterize the separate treatment of direct and diffuse radiation and the sun-tracking behaviour of the façade. In the second part, we demonstrate the performance of Lumiduct in comparison to a high-performance window with and without a dynamic venetian blind system as a shading device for a typical office room for the climate of Amsterdam. The results show a significantly higher daylight utilization along with a reduction in glare and energy use for heating and cooling the building.

Concept for adaptive wall elements with switchable U- and g-value
Concept for adaptive wall elements with switchable U- and g-value
VIII Int. Congress on Architectural Envelopes, June 20-22, 2018, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
June 2018 - PDF 0.42MB - Posted: 2018-10-11
By: Nikolaus Nestle, Thibault Pflug, Christoph Maurer, Frank Prissok, Andreas Hafner, Frank Schneider
Publisher: www.icae2018.eu

This contribution will present a concept for (translucent) wall elements with switchable U- and g-values. The basic concept of the element consists of an insulation panel (preferably realized by a translucent and light-guiding foam grid or in the future by transparent vacuum glazing) which is arranged inside a glazed closed cavity so that thermally driven convection around the element can either be enabled or suppressed. Supression of convection is realized by a rollable second insulation inside the cavity which can reflect incident solar radiation: If the secondary insulation is fully retracted resulting in high U and g-value and daylight being guided inside the building. By successively rolling down the insulation, convection can be suppressed and the g-value can be varied from almost unchanged to almost zero. In the case of the secondary insulation being rolled fully down, the U-value of the element is also minimal. This state is favourable in a cold winter night or during hot daytime hours in summer. The high translucence, low-U-value case is favourable in conditions where solar gains and good insulation are favourable and the translucent high-U-value case is favourable for example in a summer night to cool the building (...).

Innovative curtain wall with solar preheating of ventilation air and integrated control system
Innovative curtain wall with solar preheating of ventilation air and integrated control system
VIII Int. Congress on Architectural Envelopes, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain, June 20-22, 2018
June 2018 - PDF 0.44MB - Posted: 2018-10-15
By: Diego González, Beñat Arregi, Roberto Garay, Izaskun Álvarez, Gorka Sagarduy

There is a growing demand for curtain walls within the European Union, coming mainly from the commercial sector and especially targeted to office buildings. Despite recent efforts on heat loss mitigation (relying on additional glass panes, coatings or thermal breaks to framing elements) curtain walls remain a significant contributor to the energy consumption of such buildings. This paper presents the design and development of an energy-efficient alternative to conventional curtain wall systems, achieving equivalent transparency and aesthetics with greater comfort and reduced energy consumption. An integrated air cavity, sandwiched between glazing layers of thoroughly selected properties, harvests heat from both incident solar radiation and transmission losses recovered from the indoor environment. The system can supply the airflow required for ventilation with preheated fresh air, thereby reducing energy consumption in the heating season, and even delivering net gains in favourable conditions. Thereby the building envelope acquires an active role within the ventilation system, acting both as a solar collector and a heat recovery device. Whenever solar gains are not sought, a bypass element allows the natural ventilation of this air cavity, acting as a ventilated façade. An integrated control system with embedded electronics and actuators allows for a smart control of the system with no intervention required from the user.

Low Temperature Solar Thermal System for Building Envelope Integration
Low Temperature Solar Thermal System for Building Envelope Integration
VIII Int. Congress on Architectural Envelopes, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain, June 20-22, 2018
June 2018 - PDF 0.53MB - Posted: 2018-10-15
By: Marina Palacios, Roberto Garay, Ignacio Gomis, Paul Bonnamy, Saed Raji, Koldobika Martin
Publisher: www.icae2018.eu

In this article it is presented an innovative façade system with a solar thermal system. The developed solar system can be classified as modular unglazed collector, designed for low temperature energy capture. It is compatible with a solar combined system that integrates a solar heat pump. The external appearance of the building remains untouched thanks to this innovative system. Experimental works at façade collector level are presented. The integration of the unglazed collector in a heat pump based combined solar system, its performance levels and economic figures are presented.

Fassadengekoppelte Energieversorgungskonzepte für die Sanierung
Fassadengekoppelte Energieversorgungskonzepte für die Sanierung
February 2018 - PDF 0.32MB - Posted: 2018-03-29
By: D. Jähnig, C. Fink, T. Ramschak, D. Venus, K. Höfler
Publisher: ACR - Austrian Cooperative Research, Online database

Abstract  - Im Rahmen des von 2014 bis 2017 laufenden Projektes „Vorgefertigte Fassadenelemente mit maximal integrierten HVAC-Komponenten und -systemen zur Bestandssanierung“ wurden neue Lösungsansätze für intelligente Bestandssanierung aufgezeigt bzw. entwickelt, wobei es unter anderem um die Synergieeffekte für die Modernisierung der Gebäudehülle und der Gebäudetechnik bei konsequenter Nutzung erneuerbarer Energieträger ging. Erklärtes Ziel dabei war die Erreichung eines hohen Vorfertigungsgrades in Verbindung mit Holz- Vorhangfassaden und damit kurze Sanierungszeiten mit geringsten Belastungen der Bewohner, reduzierte Abhängigkeiten von der Witterung im Sanierungsprozess sowie eine gesichert hohe Ausführungsqualität. Entsprechende Energieversorgungskonzepte stellen die auf die Fassade auftreffende Solarenergie effizient dem Gebäude zur Verfügung.

Switchable Windows - Spectral Transmission and Switching Times
Switchable Windows - Spectral Transmission and Switching Times
ISES Solar World Conference and Solar Heating Conference. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE), 29.10.-02.11.2017
November 2017 - PDF 0.95MB - Posted: 2018-04-03
By: Lemarchand, P., McLean, E., Norton, B.

Abstract - The switching time and spectral transmission in fully clear and fully opaque states of polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC), suspended particle device (SPD) and electrochromic (EC) switchable windows were evaluated to assess their suitability to control solar heat transmission though glazed façade and comfort to building occupants. The transmission measurement on a SPD film showed a very effective absorption modulation in the visible range but fast decrease in the near infrared region. The switching speed was demonstrated to be related strongly to wavelengths. A SPD film with a larger absorption and faster switching speed in the infrared region was shown to be preferable to control solar heat transfer through glazings and thermal comfort. The PDLC window did not modulate transmission but rather modulated scattering. In the opaque state, the PDLC window was highly scattering resulting in spectral transmission varying at short distances from the window while being constant in the far field ... [read full Abstract and Paper]

Performance assessment of façade integrated glazed air solar thermal collectors
International Conference – Alternative and Renewable Energy Quest, AREQ 2017, 1-3 February 2017, Spain
February 2017 - Posted: 2017-03-09
By: Roberto Garay Martineza, Julen Astudillo Larraza

Present trends on solar thermal systems for building integration define the need of integrated solar technologies for façades. The integration of solar systems in façades allows for the direct connection of solar systems to heated spaces, and automated air solar collectors based on the trombe-mitchell provide a suitable technology for its adoption in multi-rise buildings with decentralized-individual HVAC systems in Central-European and Mediterranean heating dominated climates. This paper reviews the main principles of such building envelope components, and the construction and design considerations of two air-based solar thermal collectors. Full scale preliminary prototypes of these systems were tested at the KUBIK by Tecnalia test facility in an Oceanic Climate (Koppen Geiger Cfb zone). The observed thermal performance is analyzed, and the process of a full scale installation in a real building envelope retrofitting process of a building in Spain is reviewed. Access full paper on Research Gate

Performance assessment of an unglazed solar thermal collector for envelope retrofitting
Alternative and Renewable Energy Quest, AREQ 2017
February 2017 - Posted: 2017-03-09
By: Roberto Garay Martinez, Beñat Arregi Goikolea, Ignacio Gomis Paya, Paul Bonnamy, Saed Raji, Jerôme Lopez

Present trends on solar thermal systems for building integration define the need of integrated solar technologies for façades. Although other possibilities exist for solar thermal systems in new buildings, solutions for a suitable integration of solar thermal systems into building retrofitting actuations are needed. This paper presents a solar thermal collector system which hybridizes already existing ventilated façade cladding systems into a low temperature solar thermal collector. Numerical and experimental data is presented. Access full paper on Research Gate

Hybridization of solar thermal systems into architectural envelopes
Proceedings PowerSkin Conference, Munich, Germany, January 19, 2017
January 2017 - Posted: 2017-03-08
By: Beñat Arregi, Roberto Garay, Peru Elguezabal

Despite significant development in the performance and efficiency of solar thermal technology, little consideration has been given to its interaction within building envelopes, aside from mechanical fixing systems. The lack of solutions for the architectural integration of solar collectors and the complexity of their assembly process remain important barriers for the widespread adoption of this technology. An innovative approach is proposed in which solar collectors are not merely integrated into conventional building envelopes, but instead these envelopes are hybridized and activated to house solar thermal systems. This poses the challenge of adapting solar thermal technology to the capacities and limitations of architectural skins. The paper presents results from three ongoing projects. BATISOL and BASSE investigate the development of solar thermal technology so as to fulfil the functional, constructional and formal requirements of building skins. Façade assemblies are turned into active skins by integrating unglazed solar collectors in the place of conventional renders and claddings. RETROKIT explores the usage of renewable energy gains within an alternative environmental control strategy, by direct supply of heated air into the ventilation system. Finally, a discussion is presented on architectural, constructional and thermal performance aspects of these solutions, based on both design assessments and experimental data. Access full paper on Research Gate

Façade integrated HVAC systems for the renovation of residential buildings
Façade integrated HVAC systems for the renovation of residential buildings
Task 56 session at 12th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, Bern, Switzerland, 02.-03.10.2016 - website: abs.green
October 2016 - PDF 0.62MB - Posted: 2018-10-14
By: David Venus, AEE-INTEC, Austria

At the moment hardly prefabricated façade modules with integrated building services are used for the thermal renovation of residential buildings. Within the frame of the national research project “Prefabricated façade elements with maximum integrated HVAC components and systems for the renovation of existing buildings” the potential for the intelligent renovation of existing buildings should be shown and new solutions should be developed. A highest possible level of prefabrication should minimize the required renovation time and avoid vacancy. In particular, the aim is also to find solutions which allow a direct interaction of the HVAC components in the building façade with the room behind [...]
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Nordic Built - Active Roofs and Facades and Living in Light urban renewal in Valby, Copenhagen
Nordic Built - Active Roofs and Facades and Living in Light urban renewal in Valby, Copenhagen
Task 56 session at 12th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, Bern, Switzerland, 02.-03.10.2016 - website: abs.green
October 2016 - PDF 0.56MB - Posted: 2018-10-14
By: Peter Veisig, Cenergia, Denmark

In the on-going Nordic Built Living in Light project, coordinated by Kuben Management, a new concept of urban renewal will be tested at Gl. Jernbanevej in Valby in Copenhagen. Here a 4 storey old housing block from around year 1900 will have new roof top apartments together with an approx. 2 m extension of the housing block towards the courtyard. The extension mainly consists of an innovative window structure from the Danish window company Velfac, and it increases the daylight quality of the apartments considerably without compromising comfort and energy use. At the same time building integrated PV solutions secures an overall CO2 neutral design for the renovation project.

Prefabricated timber-frame envelopes for building retrofit with integrated ventilation, heating system and building services
Prefabricated timber-frame envelopes for building retrofit with integrated ventilation, heating system and building services
Task 56 session at 12th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, Bern, Switzerland, 02.-03.10.2016 - website: abs.green
October 2016 - PDF 1.2MB - Posted: 2018-10-14
By: Sebastian Hernandez, Gumpp & Maier, Germany; Fabian Ochs, University of Innsbruck, Austria

The objective of the EC-funded project iNSPiRe is to reduce the problem of high-energy consumption of existing buildings by producing systemic renovation packages that can be applied to residential and tertiary buildings. The renovation packages aim to reduce the 2 primary energy consumption of a building to lower than 50 kWh/(m a) for ventilation, heating/cooling, domestic hot water and lighting. These renovation packages need to be suitable for various climates in Europe while ensuring optimum comfort for the building users. One major goal of iNSPiRe is the development of multi-functional renovation kits that make use of innovative envelope technologies, energy generation systems (including RES integration) and energy distribution systems [...]

Integration of a sorption collector coupled with a decentralized mechanical ventilation unit in curtain wall modules
Task 56 session at 12th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, 02.-03.10.2016, Bern, Switzerland, website: abs.green
October 2016 - Posted: 2016-10-18
By: D'Antoni Matteo, EURAC, Italy

Over the last few years, a growing attention has been given to the integration of active solar technologies into the building envelope, so to increase the renewable energy production share and contribute to reach the goal of net-zero energy buildings. In this context, the layout of an air based solar cooling system integrated into a façade module was designed and assessed in [1] [2]. This solution utilizes a triple state absorption module within a Sydney type vacuum tube solar collector to thermally condition an airflow directed to the internal space reducing the thermal load covered by traditional technologies. A further development consists in the integration of this solar collector with a decentralized ventilation machine, so that the hygienic airflow can be heated up or cooled down by the sorption collector. In addition, the ventilation unit is equipped with a heating/cooling coil to guarantee the thermal comfort of the room occupants. The implementation of this system in façade modules would thus replace a centralized ventilation system and a fan coil and allow harvesting the solar radiation to produce renewable energy. The effectiveness of the sorption collector in this layout and the energy performance of the system are assessed through dynamic simulations for a set of climates and building envelope characteristics. The results show that a combination of active and passive cooling can greatly limit the use of cooling coil even though the performance varies significantly with climate and façade orientation. On the contrary, the performance in heating have been found quite poor for all configurations studied.
Keywords: Solar-active envelope, heating and cooling systems, decentralized mechanical ventilation; Abstract

Daylight-driven and user-centered lighting and energy management
Daylight-driven and user-centered lighting and energy management
Task 56 session at 12th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, 02.-03.10.2016, Bern, Switzerland, website: abs.green
October 2016 - PDF 0.32MB - Posted: 2016-10-18
By: Wilfried Pohl, Bartenbach GmbH, Austria

In the EC-funded FP7-project ‘Development of Systemic Packages for Deep Energy Renovation of Residential and Tertiary Buildings including Envelope and Systems’ (iNSPiRe; URL: http://www.inspirefp7.eu/) amongst others envelope retrofitting packages have been developed. The goal was to improve the façade of these buildings by providing more accessible and affordable energy saving solutions.
Keywords: Integrated control, daylight and artificial lighting, human-centric lighting;  Paper | Presentation

Integrated Solar Thermal Systems for renovation of external walls
11th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, 10. October 2016, Bern, Switzerland, website: abs.green
October 2016 - Posted: 2017-03-09
By: Roberto Garay Martinez, Peru Elguezabal Esnarrizaga, Julen Astudillo Larraz

Until very recently, technical systems such as solar thermal systems, and other HVAC elements have been conceptualized based uniquely in their thermal performance levels, and its integration with other architectural elements (envelopes, slabs,…) limited to mechanical fixation. However, with steadily increasing use of technologies for the reduction of the non-renewable energy needs in buildings, already developed in the last decades, deeper architectural integration is needed, also considering on cost and assembly process optimization to ensure wide market adoption. In this context, two main trends appear: Integration and hybridation of solar systems in building envelopes. Integrated solutions are created when modular and dimensionally variable glazed collectors are integrated in curtain wall structures or in external cladding systems. Hybrid solutions such as External thermal insulation systems and sandwich panels are generated where unglazed collectors are integrated as part of renders, claddings, etc. to obtain neutral aesthetical impact. Architectural, constructional and thermal results are discussed, not only based on design assessments, but also on manufacture, assembly and assessment results from experimental data.
Keywords: Solar thermal systems; Building envelopes; Integration; Integrated Solar Collector Envelopes

Towards simulation-assisted performance monitoring of BIPV systems considering shading effects
IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Portland Oregon, USA, June 5-10, 2016
June 2016 - Posted: 2017-03-13
By: Mohammad Ghasempourabadi, Kostas Sinapis, Roel Loonen, Roland Valckenborg, Jan Hensen, Wiep Folkerts

Nowadays, the application of BIPV systems is growing very fast and among this type of technology, application of BIPV facade systems is becoming more common. A main question in this field is how we can ensure the intended performance of such systems considering different involved parameters over the system's life-time. To do so, we need to be able to predict normal behavior of BIPV systems in urban environments, considering the effect of shading from neighboring obstructions. This research investigates a combination of real-time shading simulation using Rhino and Grasshopper with BIPV performance monitoring to detect abnormal system operation. The application of this approach is demonstrated for a 12 m 2 vertical BIPV system in the SolarBEAT test facility in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. We have conducted an experiment to better understand the impact of different partial shading scenarios on the I-V curve of a vertical CIGS BIPV panel. The results show that the simulation-assisted approach, coupled with data visualization and a decision tree can be a powerful tool for guaranteeing robust BIPV system output.
Keywords: solar facade, BIPV performance monitoring, real-time shading simulation; 
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Expérimentation et modélisation d’un capteur solaire opaque pour préchauffage de l’eau
Congrès annuel de la Société Française de Thermique, Toulouse, France, 21.05.-03.06.2016
January 2016 - Posted: 2017-03-09
By: Paul BONNAMY, Saed RAJI, Jérôme LOPEZ, Roberto GARAY

Cette étude porte sur la modélisation et l’étude expérimentale de capteurs solaires développés et fabriqués par INEF4 dans le cadre du projet BATISOL. Ces capteurs sont modulaires, opaques, basse température, Low-Cost, et totalement intégrés en façade derrière une solution de bardage métallique. Dans une première partie est présenté le modèle de simulation thermique du capteur. Il s’agit d’un modèle pseudo 3D par éléments finis développé sous COMSOL. Un calcul sur une coupe 2D du capteur est répété n fois selon la direction du fluide afin de déterminer les variables d’état tout au long du capteur. Dans une deuxième partie est présenté le dispositif expérimental, les prototypes réalisés ainsi que les résultats des tests expérimentaux. La comparaison entre ces deux approches permet de valider l’utilisation d’un modèle pseudo 3D pour la simulation thermique des capteurs BATISOL.

Soon available

Performance Tracking: Lab measurements and field testing of integrated systems - Integration into practical design application
13th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, 1-2 October 2018, Bern, Switzerland, website: abs.green
October 2018 - Posted: 2018-03-18
By: Hubschneider, C.; de Boer, J. (Paper will be uploaded when available)
A Review of Control Methodologies for Dynamic Glazing
12th Conference on Advanced Building Skins (ABS). Bern, Switzerland, October 2-3, 2017, website: abs.green
October 2017 - Posted: 2018-04-03
By: McLean, E., Norton, B., Kearney, D., Lemarchand, P.